The name (Sudan) was designated to the lands that were located Southern of the African Greater Desert which extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Red sea and the Indian Ocean in the east. Nowadays, the said name is designated to the region which is located in the South of Egypt in the middle part of the Nile Basin. The name (Kosh) was also designated, in the Old Testament and the Assyrian texts to the same part of land, but the present name (Sudan) is the plural of a Greek word that means (black people).
Location and Area
Sudan is located in the northeastern part of Africa between the 22.4 latitude northern equator and 38.22 longitude. The country occupies the middle part between Africa and the Arab World which. Such a location distinguishes Sudan with a unique characteristic considering it the main passage between north and south of Africa. Sudan also was the main passage for the pilgrim and trade convoys that forward from the east of Africa to the Holy Lands until the mid of the current century.
Total area of the Sudan is about one million miles square (about 2.5 million km square) which makes it one of the largest African countries and it comes ninth among the largest countries of the world. Sudan is the largest Arab and African country as its area constitutes 8.3% of the total area of Africa.
The following countries neighbor Sudan:-Egypt, Libya, Chad, Central Africa, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Eritrea and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia across the Red Sea.
Arable lands are estimated to be (200) Million Feddans (84) Million Hectares.
Tropical climate, which is characterized by increase of heat degrees on most days of a year, being very dry in the far north then graduates to be semi-wet in the far south, prevails in Sudan.
Annual rain rates range from almost zero in the far north to 500 mm in the central Sudan to more than 1500 mm in the far south of Sudan.
The River Nile, including all its various branches, plays an important role in the Sudan’s economic, social and cultural life and in its foreign relationships. Water of the River Nile and all its various branches is utilized in generating electricity from Dams of Al-Roseires, Sinnar, Khashm Al-Girba and Jabal Awliaa as well as in navigation and fishing.
Storage of groundwater is estimated to be about (900) Billion meters utilized in irrigation purposes and civil usages.
Airports, Airstrip and Seaports
There are (17) airports in Sudan of which (6) are international airports, the biggest one thereof is the Khartoum International Airport, which studies are currently made for transferring and reconstructing it, and (11) local airport distributed in the northern Sudan states, Atbara, Al-Fashir and others. There are (63) airstrips currently in the different parts of Sudan.
The Red Sea is the only navigation outlet for Sudan to the external world. Port Sudan, Suakin, Awseif and Bashair are the Sudanese ports. Coast of the Red Sea is characterized by existence of coral phylums which provide lodging to different types of rare marine creatures.
Population of Sudan in the beginning of the year 2005 is estimated to be about (34,512,000) persons at a growth rate of 2,53 annually, population density reaches 14 persons for one km square. Population of rural areas constitutes 24,6% of the total population. Population of Sudan is comprised from tribes that descended from Arab, African and Nubian origins.
Religions: Islam, Christianity and local beliefs.
Languages: Arabic, English, local languages and dialects.
System of Governance
According to the Interim Constitution for the year 2005, System of Governance is federalism.
Levels of governance is represented in the following:
Level of the national governance that exercises power for protecting sovereignty of Sudan, guaranteeing safety of its lands and enhancing welfare of its people.
Level of states’ governance that exercises power at the level of states allover Sudan for providing public services through the nearest level to citizens which is the level of local governance which is available all over Sudan. In Sudan there are 25 states 15 of them in the North and the other 10 in the South.
Khartoumis comprised of three towns, Khartoum which is the political capital, Omdurman the national capital and Khartoum North the industrial capital.
Environmental tourism in the Republic of Sudan
Sudanoccupies a large area of land and is rich in natural resources. Consequently, it provides a lot of investment opportunities mainly in the tourism sector and environmental tourism in specific, due to its various natural environments: forest, aquatic, coastal and desert. As a result , Sudan is a favourite tourist destination for relaxation, recreation, medical tourism, environmental tourism, safaries and different types of sea, river and desert related sports.
Wildlife in Sudan is an important source of tourism, with many nature reserves such as Dinder, which is the largest reserve for animals and birds in Africa north of the Equator .Its area is 3,500 square miles with lakes, ponds, rivers and forests.
Alradomin south Darfur is also a nature reserve with beautiful sights. In addition, Sonqonib is a marine reserve on the Red Sea. It is circular and called ‘the Divers’ Paradise’ due to its richness in colorful fish and coral reefs.
Fishing in Sudan is one of the most important sources of tourism. Sudan receives tourists from around the world during fishing seasons. These seasons were decided upon by the government to preserve the ecological balance of wild animals.
Most Important Industries
Textiles – cement – food oil – sugar – soap – hide products – food stuff – mining and transformational industries.
Number of animal resources per million heads until the year 2005.
Camels :3,547 – Goats: 42,179 – Sheep: 49,797 – cows: 40,369
Hashaband acacia trees contribute in constituting a part of the Sudan’s forestry wealth where area cultivated with Hashab trees reaches (40120) Feddans producing (15200) Million tons average while Hashab trees area reaches (64210) Feddans producing about (3450) Million tons per year.
Wood production reaches (11250) meter cubic sawn and (141450) meter cubic as fire wood while average of charcoal production per sacks reaches (1772541) a year.
Minerals and Petrol
Production of minerals per ton until beginning of the year 2005:
Gold (4.73), chrome(14666) , gypsum (5132), salt ( ( 48685, silver (2,40).
Crude oil 113,094 barrel for the year 2004.
Sudanhas plentiful resources where animal resources, Gum Arabic, cotton, oil seeds and gold are significant sources for treasury of the Country besides mining petrol will definitely contribute in realizing welfare for Sudan’s people